Many water processes have special requirements for water purity and water treatment equipment. Various methods (e.g. reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation) are often combined to obtain the required water quality; for example feed water conductivity < 0.2 μS/cm and silica content < 20 μg/l for boilers with turbine operation. Medical applications often need special, high-grade stainless steel components.
Applied water treatment technologies: